Learning Radiology xray montage

Bladder Cancer


  • Incidence
    • In the US, bladder cancer is the 4th most common cancer in men
      • Prostate
      • Lung
      • Colorectal cancer
      • Bladder cancer
    • It is the 10th most common cancer in women
    • More common in whites than in blacks
      • 3:1 male to female predominance
  • Classic clinical presentation is painless, gross hematuria
  • Risk factors
    • Smoking
    • Pelvic irradiation
    • Exposure to aniline dyes
    • Chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide
  • Most common is urothelial carcinoma, formerly known as transitional cell carcinoma (90%)
  • Squamous cell carcinoma (4%)
    • Worst prognosis
      • Associated with chronic infection and irritation
    • Worldwide (not in the USA), squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder is the most common cell type
      • In underdeveloped nations, associated with bladder infection by Schistosoma haematobium
  • Adenocarcinoma (1%)
    • Most common in bladder exstrophy
    • Respond poorly to radiation therapy
  • Stage of disease
    • More than 70% of all newly diagnosed bladder cancers are superficial
    • About 5% present with metastatic disease
      • Most often lymph nodes
      • Lung
      • Liver
      • Bone
      • Central nervous system
  • Prognosis
    • Superficial bladder cancer has good prognosis with 5-year survival rates of 82-100%
    • Prognosis for metastatic transitional cell cancer is much poorer with only 5% of patients living 2 years after diagnosis 

 bladder cancer

Bladder Carcinoma. CT urogram. CT of the abdomen with contrast reformatted in the coronal projection shows a filling defect in the left lateral wall of the urinary bladder (red arrow) representing a papillary urothelial tumor of the bladder.

eMedicine- Bladder Cancer - Gary David Steinberg, MD with Hyung L Kim, MD, Kush Sachdeva, MD, and Brendan Curti, MD